Previously, we took a look the most popular number from the Beijing opera “The Empty City Stratagem”: “I am a carefree fellow from Sleeping Dragon Mountain.” Today, we’ll examine the opera’s second-most-celebrated excerpt, “Standing on the city walls, admiring the mountain scenery.”
Any fan of Italian bel-canto opera will tell you that the heart of the genre, its yin-yang, is the pair of contrasting movements cantabile and cabaletta. The slow, lyrical, reflective cantabile (“song-like”) is followed by an up-tempo cabaletta (“little couplet”) expressing agitation, exaltation or determination.
While the sequence of tempi and song-types in Beijing opera is more varied than in Italian bel-canto, there is still a marked tendency for long monologues by characters to begin slowly and end quickly. Sometimes, there is a slow-burn – the musical pace quickens with each successive turn of the plot, like a finale from an opera buffa (the final scene of the modern classic The Unicorn Purse ,锁麟囊, would be one example). Just as often, there is a neat division between slow and fast arias. Such is the case with “I am a carefree fellow…” and “Standing on the city walls…”
As we saw last time, the poetry for the slow-tempo aria “I am a carefree fellow” was quite regular – only twice were the 10-syllable lines stretched out to include an extra syllable. The poetry for the quick-tempo “Standing on the city walls…” , on the other hand, clearly plays fast and loose with the traditional poetic rules.
The lengths of the odd-numbered lines vary from 7-10 syllables, with most of them containing 8 syllables. The lengths of the even-numbered lines vary much more dramatically, from 8 to a tongue-twisting 17 syllables.
This is typical: slow arias tend to feature balanced couplets that are the very model of lyrical propriety, while the verses of fast arias frequently run helter-skelter across the page. One reason for these different poetic styles can be found in the music of Beijing opera.
Recall that Beijing opera melodies repeat themselves every two lines. As with the 12-bar-blues, repetition becomes the mother of invention. Slow arias overcome the musical limitation by varying the tunes: they can be ornamented, shrunk, or developed and stretched to greater length, all while keeping each line’s syllable count relatively fixed. The caesuras within each line of poetry can be filled with instrumental interludes of greater or shorter length, depending on the dramatic situation.
At a quick tempo, however, there are fewer opportunities to vary the length of a musical line, so the lines themselves are often of irregular length. A fast aria sung to a regular succession of 7- or 10-syllable lines would run the risk of producing an unwelcome sing-song effect. Changing the syllable count produces musical variety.
Looking again at the Chinese text of “Standing on the City Walls…”, we notice that the odd-numbered lines tend to be more regular in length than the even-numbered lines. Naturally, the music for these couplets reflects this difference. Each pair of lines begins in a rather stereotyped fashion. As the couplet progresses, the music accompanying the words becomes more individual, more varied as it approaches a cadence on the final syllable. The rule of thumb is: odd-numbered lines are usually even, even-numbered lines can be quite odd.
Though the lines in a fast aria can sometimes be spun out to improbable lengths, their internal structure is still derived from the 3-part, 2-caesura division of the line we noted with the slow arias. Recall that the 10-syllable lines of “I am a carefree fellow from Sleeping Dragon Mountain” were divided into groups of 3+3+4 syllables, with short (or sometimes long) pauses between each segment.
The poetry of “Standing on the City Walls…” is based on the traditional structure of a 7-syllable line. Here an extra syllable is often added to the traditional 2+2+3 structure to produce lines of 3+2+3 syllables.
1.我正在 城楼 观山景,
wǒzhèngzài chénglóu guānshāntíng,
I am at city walls looking at the mountain scenery,
2.耳听得 城外 乱纷纷。
ěrtīngde héngwài luànfēnfēn.
Hearing outside the city disorder everywhere.
3.旌旗 招展 空翻影,
jīngqí zhāozhǎn kōngfānyǐng,
Banners flutter shadows tumble,
4.却原来是 司马 发来的兵.
quèyuánláishì sīmǎ fāláidebīng
It must be that Sima troops sent here.
At a quick tempo, an extra syllable or two can be added to the 2+2+3 scheme without doing much violence to the overall feel of the line’s tripartite form. Sometimes the extra syllables help clarify the meaning a bit: “I am at” and “Hearing” could have been expressed using the 2-syllable forms wǒzài (我在) and tīngde (听得) instead of the 3-syllable forms Zhuge Liang sings. Sometimes the break in poetic form can help intensify the character’s expression:
7. 一来是 马谡 无谋少才能,
yīláishì mǎsù wúmóushǎocáinéng,
First Ma Su is talentless and planned poorly,
The final part of the line is expanded from three syllables to five, allowing Zhuge Liang to multiply Ma Su’s faults and to emphasize the fact that Ma Su is, indeed, a blockhead.
There is another method for expanding the lengths of lines, and that is by simply adding on more 3-, 4- or 5- syllable units to the end of a line. Such lines no longer have the 3-part division we’ve been looking at before, but might contain 4, 5 or more small cells of text, each cell forming a complete syntactic unit and slightly set apart from its neighbors. For example:
18. 为什么 你犹豫不定 进退两难， 所为的何情.
wèishénme nǐyóuyùbùdìng, jìntuìliǎngnán, suǒwéidehéqíng.
Why are you hesitating, in a dilemma what kind of feeling?
Instead of a standard line length of 2+2+3 or 3+3+4 syllables, we end up with a Frankenstein verse constructed of 3+5+4+5 syllables.
If you don’t speak Chinese, these considerations of verse-length and verse-structure might seem arcane and irrelevant. But the variations in line length, the caesuras and rhythm of the traditional three-part verse line, all have audible consequences for the music. If you know a little something about the structure of the verse, the structure of the music becomes a bit clearer to you as well. We’ll discuss that next time.
Here is the aria text in full, with translation:
1. Standing on the city walls, admiring the mountain scenery,
2. I hear below there is noise and confusion everywhere.
3. Banners and flags flap in the breeze, their shadows tumble about,
4. This must certainly mean that Sima’s army has arrived.
5. I had sent scouts to every corner,
6. To learn whether Sima’s armies were marching westward.
7-8. 一来是马谡无谋少才能， 二来是将帅不和失街亭.
7. One came to tell me about talentless Ma Su’s poor plans,
8. A second came to tell me that armies could not hold Jieting.
9. Your brigades were quite lucky to take three of our cities,
10. Out of insatiable greed, you now want to take Xicheng.
11. Zhuge Liang waits with his command on the turret,
12. Expecting the arrival of Sima here, talking, talk, talk, talking about arrangements.
13-14. 西城外街道打扫净， 预备着司马好屯兵.
13. Ensuring the streets of Xicheng are swept spotless,
14. Getting all in ready to station Sima’s soldiers.
15-16. 诸葛并无有别的敬， 早预备下羊羔美酒犒赏你的三军.
15. Zhuge Liang could offer no less mark of respect,
16. I have prepared some fresh mutton and tasty wine to reward your victorious three armies.
17. This was all arranged for your arrival in the city,
18. Why this hesitation and uncertainty, can you really feel yourself in a pickle?
19. To my left and right are lads assisting on the zither,
20. I have no hidden troops or guards.
21. Don’t just stand there dazed and confused,
22. Come! Come! Come into the city and hear me strum the zither!